The word ‘nano’ is used for very tiny objects, whose sizes are much smaller than the usual materials. With the rise and rapid growth of nanotechnology, now more people feel interested in gaining knowledge about the nano particles. Usually, the minute particles whose sizes range from 1 – 1000 nanometers are scientifically termed as Nano materials. People have several types of queries and even wrong impressions about the uses of nanotechnology and these nano particles.
Most notable features of the nano materials in latest science
- The nano particles normally do not have any other dimension, except its length that can be measured only by a special Nanoscale, holding readings from 1 – 100 nanometers. As per the measurement science, 1 millimeter is equal to 100 million nanometers (nm).
- The materials whose length measure to be less than 100 nm are mostly used as the common nano objects that can be used in several scientific devices, which work in adding or desegregating atoms or molecules of the elements.
- These nano particles exhibit special electronic and optical properties that are greatly used in many industries, other than the scientific applications.
- Mostly these nano particles are used in large groups, instead of using single nano particle, as the joint surfaces of all the nano particles together provide much greater impact than that produced by a single particle.
- But the nano particles retain all the basic physical and chemical properties of the element, from which they are created.
- Generally, the nano particles can be made in the form of solid rods, hollow tubes, round particles and very fine fibers.
- Some nano particles occur naturally in various common materials that we see every day; like the thin wax-type covering over the lotus leaves, the scales on the wings of butterflies, colloidal structures available in milk or blood, as well as inner components of the human bones.
- Many nano particles are made from allotropes of carbon, in the form of microscopic tubes, termed as fullerenes. These nanotubes may also be made of silicon and highly favored for the huge mechanical strength and electrical power of these particles.
- Graphene nano particles are composed of only one layer of atoms that has got two dimensions, which is a recent discovery. Now graphene is also available in box shaped particles, which is in 3D form.
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Various uses of nano materials in modern world
The nanotechnology is now widely used in manufacturing washing machines and other similar kinds of electronic appliances, food processing and packaging, manufacture of suitable dressing for wounds in healthcare industry, making of several cosmetics, creation of socks and various undergarments in textile industry, as well as in various applications for protection of environment. But the most important use of nano particles is made in Information Technology sector, for the creation and operation of various instruments there.
But the users of nano particles should be careful about the proper usage of these high reactive materials, mainly in biotechnological and environmental applications, as these particles can easily penetrate through the human bodies and cause damage, if suitable precautions are not taken.